剑桥雅思15Test2Passage3阅读原文翻译 having a laugh

剑桥雅思15Test2Passage3阅读原文翻译 having a laugh 笑一笑



剑桥雅思15Test2Passage3阅读答案解析 having a laugh 笑一笑

雅思阅读真题词汇 剑桥雅思15 Test 2 Passage 3 笑的特点和功用

剑桥雅思15 Test2 Passage3阅读原文翻译


Humans start developing a sense of humour as early as six weeks old, when babies begin to laugh and smile in response to stimuli. Laughter is universal across all human cultures and even exists in some form in rats, chimps, and bonobos. Like other human emotions and expressions, laughter and humour provide psychological scientists with rich resources for studying human psychology, ranging from the development of language to the neuroscience of social perception.



Theories focusing on the evolution of laughter point to it as an important adaptation for social communication. Take, for example, the recorded laughter in TV comedy shows. Back in 1950, US sound engineer Charley Douglass hated dealing with the unpredictable laughter of live audiences, so started recording his own ‘laugh tracks’. These were intended to help people at home feel like they were in a social situation, such as a crowded theatre. Douglass even recorded various types of laughter, as well as mixtures of laughter from men, women, and children. In doing so, he picked up on a quality of laughter that is now interesting researchers: a simple ‘haha’ communicates a remarkable amount of socially relevant information.

关注笑容进化的理论指出,它是对社会交流的重要适应。以电视喜剧中事先录好的笑声为例。1950年,美国声音工程师Charley Douglass厌倦了处理现场观众无法预测的笑声,因此开始录制他自己的“笑声轨道”。这些音轨原本是为了让那些待在家里的人感觉自己仿佛处于社交场合之中,比如拥挤的剧院。Douglass甚至录制了不同类型的笑声,还将男人,女人和孩子的笑声混合在一起。在这样做的过程中,他注意到笑声一个如今仍然让研究者十分感兴趣的特点:仅仅是简单的“哈哈”就能传达出数量惊人的社交信息。


In one study conducted in 2016, samples of laughter from pairs of English-speaking students were recorded at the University of California, Santa Cruz. A team made up of more than 30 psychological scientists, anthropologists, and biologists then played these recordings to listeners from 24 diverse societies, from indigenous tribes in New Guinea to city-dwellers in India and Europe. Participants were asked whether they thought the people laughing were friends or strangers. On average, the results were remarkably consistent: worldwide, people’s guesses were correct approximately 60% of the time.



Researchers have also found that different types of laughter serve as codes to complex human social hierarchies. A team led by Christopher Oveis from the University of California, San Diego, found that high-status individuals had different laughs from low-status individuals, and that strangers’ judgements of an individual’s social status were influenced by the dominant or submissive quality of their laughter. In their study, 48 male college students were randomly assigned to groups of four, with each group composed of two low-status members, who had just joined their college fraternity group, and two high-status members, older students who had been active in the fraternity for at least two years. Laughter was recorded as each student took a turn at being teased by the others, involving the use of mildly insulting nicknames. Analysis revealed that, as expected, high-status individuals produced more dominant laughs and fewer submissive laughs relative to the low-status individuals. Meanwhile, low-status individuals were more likely to change their laughter based on their position of power; that is, the newcomers produced more dominant laughs when they were in the ‘powerful’ role of teasers. Dominant laughter was higher in pitch, louder, and more variable in tone than submissive laughter.

研究者们还发现:不同类型的笑声能够作为人类社会复杂层级的暗码使用。由加利福尼亚大学圣地亚哥分校的Christopher Oveis领导的研究团队发现,社会地位高的个体与社会地位低的个体拥有不同的笑法,而陌生人对一个人社会地位的判断会受到他们笑声中支配性或服从性特质的影响。在他们的研究中,48名男性大学生被随机分为四人小组。每一组包含两名社会地位较低的成员(刚刚加入大学兄弟会)和两名社会地位较高的成员(至少已经在兄弟会中活跃两年的年长学生)。每位学生轮流被他人揶揄,具体手段包括使用有着轻微冒犯意味的外号,并记录他们的笑声。分析发现,正如事先预料的那样,与社会地位较低的个体相比,社会地位较高的人会发出更多支配性的笑声和更少服从性的笑声。与此同时,社会地位较低的个体更有可能根据他们的权力地位改变自己的笑声。也就是说,当新人处于揶揄者这一“掌权”地位时,他们会发出更多支配性的笑声。相比于服从性的笑声而言,支配性的笑声音调更高,声音更大,语调变化更为多样。


A random group of volunteers then listened to an equal number of dominant and submissive laughs from both the high- and low-status individuals, and were asked to estimate the social status of the laugher. In line with predictions, laughers producing dominant laughs were perceived to be significantly higher in status than laughers producing submissive laughs. ‘This was particularly true for low-status individuals, who were rated as significantly higher in status when displaying a dominant versus submissive laugh, ‘ Oveis and colleagues note. ‘Thus, by strategically displaying more dominant laughter when the context allows, low-status individuals may achieve higher status in the eyes of others.’ However, high-status individuals were rated as high-status whether they produced their natural dominant laugh or tried to do a submissive one.



Another study, conducted by David Cheng and Lu Wang of Australian National University, was based on the hypothesis that humour might provide a respite from tedious situations in the workplace. This ‘mental break’ might facilitate the replenishment of mental resources. To test this theory, the researchers recruited 74 business students, ostensibly for an experiment on perception. First, the students performed a tedious task in which they had to cross out every instance of the letter ‘e’ over two pages of text. The students then were randomly assigned to watch a video clip eliciting either humour, contentment, or neutral feelings. Some watched a clip of the BBC comedy Mr. Bean, others a relaxing scene with dolphins swimming in the ocean, and others a factual video about the management profession.

另一项由澳大利亚国立大学的David Cheng和Lu Wang所进行的研究则建立在这样的假设之上:幽默也许能让人从工作场所无聊乏味的环境中暂时解脱出来。这种“精神休息”也许能够帮助补充精力。为了测试这一理论,研究者以进行认知实验为名,招募了74名商学院的学生。首先,学生要完成一项无聊的任务。他们必须划掉长达两页的文本中所有的字母“e”。然后学生被随机安排观看一段视频,刺激或者幽默、或者满足、或者中立的情感。一些人观看BBC喜剧《憨豆先生》中的片段,另一些人观看海豚在海洋中畅游的轻松景象,还有一些人则观看有关管理学专业的一部纪实影片。


The students then completed a task requiring persistence in which they were asked to guess the potential performance of employees based on provided profiles, and were told that making 10 correct assessments in a row would lead to a win. However, the software was programmed such that it was nearly impossible to achieve 10 consecutive correct answers. Participants were allowed to quit the task at any point. Students who had watched the Mr. Bean video ended up spending significantly more time working on the task, making twice as many predictions as the other two groups.



Cheng and Wang then replicated these results in a second study, during which they had participants complete long multiplication questions by hand. Again, participants who watched the humorous video spent significantly more time working on this tedious task and completed more questions correctly than did the students in either of the other groups.



‘Although humour has been found to help relieve stress and facilitate social relationships, the traditional view of task performance implies that individuals should avoid things such as humour that may distract them from the accomplishment of task goals,’ Cheng and Wang conclude. ‘We suggest that humour is not only enjoyable but more importantly, energizing.’


剑桥雅思15Test2Passage1阅读原文翻译 Could urban engineers learn from dance 舞蹈对城市交通设计的启示

剑桥雅思15Test2Passage2阅读原文翻译 Should we try to bring extinct species back to life 复活已灭绝的物种

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