剑桥雅思18Test2Passage3阅读原文翻译 An ideal city

剑桥雅思18Test2Passage3阅读原文翻译 An ideal city 理想城市

剑桥雅思18阅读第二套题目第三篇文章的主题为理想城市。具体内容包括列奥纳多涉足城市规划的背景,其所设想的理想城市的特点,创新之处,以及对未来城市发展的启发。下面是具体每个自然段对应的汉语翻译。

剑桥雅思18Test2Passage3阅读答案解析 An ideal city 理想城市

剑桥雅思18 Test2 Passage3阅读原文翻译

第1段

The word ‘genius’ is universally associated with the name of Leonardo da Vinci. A true Renaissance man, he embodied scientific spirit, artistic talent and humanist sensibilities. Five hundred years have passed since Leonardo died in his home at Chateau du Clos Luce, outside Tours, France. Yet far from fading into insignificance, his thinking has carried down the centuries and still surprises today.

“天才”这个词往往与列奥纳多·达·芬奇的名字联系在一起。作为一个真正的文艺复兴人物,他具备科学精神、艺术才能和人文情怀。自从达·芬奇在法国图尔市郊外的克洛斯吕斯城堡的家中去世以来已经过去了五百年。然而,他的思想并没有慢慢变得无关紧要,而是一直流传至今,仍然让人们感到惊讶。

第2段

The Renaissance marked the transition from the 15th century to modernity and took place after the spread of the plague in the 14th century, which caused a global crisis resulting in some 200 million deaths across Europe and Asia. Today, the world is on the cusp of a climate crisis, which is predicted to cause widespread displacement, extinctions and death, if left unaddressed. Then, as now, radical solutions were called for to revolutionise the way people lived and safeguard humanity against catastrophe.

文艺复兴标志着从15世纪向现代的过渡,它发生在14世纪鼠疫蔓延之后。鼠疫导致全球危机。欧洲和亚洲共有大约2亿人死亡。如今,世界正处在气候危机的边缘,如果不加以解决,将导致大范围的人口迁移、物种灭绝和死亡。就像过去一样,现在也需要采取激进的解决方案,彻底改变人们的生活方式,以保护人类免受灾难的侵害。

第3段

Around 1486 – after a pestilence that killed half the population in Milan, Italy – Leonardo turned his thoughts to urban planning problems. Following a typical Renaissance trend, he began to work on an ‘ideal city’ project, which – due to its excessive costs – would remain unfulfilled. This article is from website. Yet given that unsustainable urban models are a key cause of global climate change today, it’s only natural to wonder how Leonardo might have changed the shape of modern cities.

1486年左右(一场杀死意大利米兰市一半人口的瘟疫之后),列奥纳多开始思考城市规划问题。他遵循文艺复兴时期的典型趋势,开始着手一个名为“理想城市”的项目。然而由于成本过高,这个项目最终未能实现。不过,考虑到不可持续的城市模式是如今全球气候变化的主要原因之一,我们不禁想知道列奥纳多会如何改变现代城市的形态。

第4段

Although the Renaissance is renowned as an era of incredible progress in art and architecture, it is rarely noted that the 15th century also marked the birth of urbanism as a true academic discipline. The rigour and method behind the conscious conception of a city had been largely missing in Western thought until the moment when prominent Renaissance men pushed forward large-scale urban projects in Italy, such as the reconfiguration of the town of Pienza and the expansion of the city of Ferrara. These works surely inspired Leonardo’s decision to rethink the design of medieval cities, with their winding and overcrowded streets and with houses piled against one another.

尽管文艺复兴因艺术和建筑方面令人难以置信的进步而闻名,但很少有人注意到,15世纪也标志着城市规划作为真正的学术学科的诞生。西方思想缺少有意识规划城市所需要的严谨和方法,直到著名的文艺复兴人物推动了意大利的大规模城市项目,如皮恩扎小镇的重新规划和费拉拉市的扩张。这些作品无疑启发列奥纳多文章来自重新思考中世纪的城市设计,即蜿蜒拥挤的街道,以及紧密相连的房屋。

第5段

It is not easy to identify a coordinated vision of Leonardo’s ideal city because of his disordered way of working with notes and sketches. But from the largest collection of Leonardo’s papers ever assembled, a series of innovative thoughts can be reconstructed regarding the foundation of a new city along the Ticino River, which runs from Switzerland into Italy and is 248 kilometres long. He designed the city for the easy transport of goods and clean urban spaces, and he wanted a comfortable and spacious city, with well-ordered streets and architecture. He recommended ‘high, strong walls’, with ‘towers and battlements of all necessary and pleasant beauty’.

由于列奥纳多凌乱的笔记和草图,很难确定他对理想城市的整体愿景。但从迄今为止最大的列奥纳多文集中,我们可以重构一系列关于在从瑞士流入意大利的提契诺河沿岸建立新城的创新思想。他设计这座城市以方便货物运输,创造清洁的城市空间,并希望得到一个舒适而宽敞的城市。那里拥有井然有序的街道和建筑。他推荐建造“高大坚固的城墙”,并配以“所有必要和漂亮的塔楼与城垛”。

第6段

His plans for a modern and ‘rational’ city were consistent with Renaissance ideals. But, in keeping with his personality, Leonardo included several innovations in his urban design. Leonardo wanted the city to be built on several levels, linked with vertical outdoor staircases. This design can be seen in some of today’s high-rise buildings but was unconventional at the time. Indeed, this idea of taking full advantage of the interior spaces wasn’t implemented until the 1920s and 1930s, with the birth of the Modernist movement.

他追求现代和“理性”的城市规划与文艺复兴的理念是一致的。然而,与他的个性相符,列奥纳多在城市设计中做了几项创新。他希望这座城市建在几个平面上,通过垂直的户外楼梯相连。这种设计在一些现代高层建筑中可以看到,但在当时不常见的。事实上,充分利用室内空间的这一想法直到20世纪20,30年代现代主义运动诞生之后才得以实施。

第7段

While in the upper layers of the city, people could walk undisturbed between elegant palaces and streets, the lower layer was the place for services, trade, transport and industry. But the true originality of Leonardo’s vision was its fusion of architecture and engineering. Leonardo designed extensive hydraulic plants to create artificial canals throughout the city. The canals, regulated by clocks and basins, were supposed to make it easier for boats to navigate inland. Leonardo also thought that the width of the streets ought to match the average height of the adjacent houses: a rule still followed in many contemporary cities across Italy, to allow access to sun and reduce the risk of damage from earthquakes.

在城市上层,人们可以在优雅的宫殿和街道之间自由行走,而下层则是用于服务、贸易、交通和工业的地方。然而,列奥纳多愿景中真正的独创性在于将建筑和工程融合在一起。他设计了大量的水力设施,在整个城市中建造人工运河。这些运河由时钟和水池调节,旨在使船只更容易在内陆航行。列奥纳多还认为街道的宽度应与相邻房屋的平均高度相匹配:许多意大利现代城市仍然遵循这一规则,以享受阳光,减少地震的危害。

第8段

Although some of these features existed in Roman cities, before Leonardo’s drawings there had never been a multi-level, compact modern city which was thoroughly technically conceived. Indeed, it wasn’t until the 19th century that some of his ideas were applied. For example, the subdivision of the city by function – with services and infrastructures located in the lower levels and wide and well-ventilated boulevards and walkways above for residents – is an idea that can be found in Georges-Eugene Haussmann’s renovation of Paris under Emperor Napoleon Ⅲ between 1853 and 1870.

尽管上述一些特征在罗马城市中就已经存在,但在列奥纳多的图画之前,还从未出现过一个经过彻底技术构思的,多层次、紧凑的现代城市。实际上,直到19世纪,他的一些想法才开始得以应用。例如,通过功能划分城市,将服务和基础设施置于低层,而将宽阔通风良好的林荫大道和步行道置于上层,以供居民使用。该想法在拿破仑三世时期(1853年至1870年)乔治·尤金·奥斯曼对巴黎的改造中有所体现。

第9段

Today, Leonardo’s ideas are not simply valid, they actually suggest a way forward for urban planning. Many scholars think that the compact city, built upwards instead of outwards, integrated with nature (especially water systems), with efficient transport infrastructure, could help modern cities become more efficient and sustainable. This is yet another reason why Leonardo was aligned so closely with modern urban planning and centuries ahead of his time.

如今,列奥纳多的思想不仅仍然有效,而且为城市规划提供了进步的方向。许多学者认为,紧凑的城市(向上而非向外扩展,与自然(尤其是水系统)融为一体,并拥有高效的交通基础设施)可以帮助现代城市变得更加高效和可持续。这也是为什么列奥纳多与现代城市规划密切相关,并领先于其所在时代好几个世纪的又一个原因。

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