剑桥雅思8Test2阅读Passage2原文翻译 the little ice age

剑桥雅思8Test2阅读Passage2原文翻译 the little ice age 小冰期/小冰河时代



雅思真题阅读词汇 剑桥雅思8 test 2 passage 2 小冰川期 

剑桥雅思8Test2阅读Passage2答案解析 the little ice age 小冰期/小冰河时代

剑桥雅思8 Test2 Passage2阅读原文翻译


This book will provide a detailed examination of the Little Ice Age and other climatic shifts, but, before I embark on that, let me provide a historical context. We tend to think of climate – as opposed to weather – as something unchanging, yet humanity has been at the mercy of climate change for its entire existence, with at least eight glacial episodes in the past 730, 000 years. Our ancestors adapted to the universal but irregular global warming since the end of the last great Ice Age, around 10, 000years ago, with dazzling opportunism. They developed strategies for surviving harsh drought cycles, decades of heavy rainfall or unaccustomed cold; adopted agriculture and stock-raising, which revolutionised human life; and founded the world’s first pre-industrial civilisations in Egypt, Mesopotamia and the Americas. But the price of sudden climate change, in famine, disease and suffering, was often high.

本书将详细探讨小冰河时代和其他气候变化,但在我着手探讨之前,请让我先描述一下历史背景。我们倾向于将气候(与天气相对)视为不变的东西,但是人类在整个生存过程中一直受气候变化的支配。在过去的730000年中至少发生了八次冰川事件。自大约十万年前上一个大冰河时代结束以来,我们的祖先以令人眼花缭乱的机会主义适应了普遍但不规则的全球变暖。他们制定了应对严酷干旱,数十年暴雨或令人不适的严寒的策略;采用农业和畜牧业彻底改变了人类生活;并在埃及,美索不达米亚和美洲建立了世界上第一批前工业化文明 。但突然的气候变化所造成的代价(饥荒,疾病和苦难)往往很高。


The Little Ice Age lasted from roughly 1300 until the middle of the nineteenth century. Only two centuries ago, Europe experienced a cycle of bitterly cold winters; mountain glaciers in the Swiss Alps were the lowest in recorded memory, and pack ice surrounded Iceland for much of the year. The climatic events of the Little Ice Age did more than help shape the modern world. They are the deeply important context for the current unprecedented global warming. The Little Ice Age was far from a deep freeze, however; rather an irregular seesaw of rapid climatic shifts, few lasting more than a quarter-century, driven by complex and still little understood interactions between the atmosphere and the ocean. The seesaw brought cycles of intensely cold winters and easterly winds, then switched abruptly to years of heavy spring and early summer rains, mild winters, and frequent Atlantic storms, or to periods of droughts, light northeasterly winds, and summer heat waves.

小冰河时代大约从1300持续到19 世纪中叶。仅仅两个世纪前,欧洲经历了严寒的冬季。瑞士阿尔卑斯山的高山冰川处于有记录以来的最低点,而冰块文章来自在一年中的大部分时间里都包围着冰岛。小冰河时代的气候事件不仅仅帮助塑造了现代世界。它们还是当前史无前例的全球变暖的极为重要的背景。然而,小冰河世纪并非极度寒冷,而是一种不规则的、交互的迅速气候变化。它们的持续时间很少超过四分之一世纪,由大气与海洋之间复杂而我们又知之甚少的相互作用驱动。它带来周期性的寒冷冬季和东风,然后突然转变为多年的漫长春季,初夏降雨,温和冬季和频繁的大西洋风暴,或者转为干旱,东北风和夏季热浪。


Reconstructing the climate changes of the past is extremely difficult, because systematic weather observations began only a few centuries ago, in Europe and North America. Records from India and tropical Africa are even more recent. For the time before records began, we have only ‘proxy records’ reconstructed largely from tree rings and ice cores, supplemented by a few incomplete written accounts. We now have hundreds of tree-ring records from throughout the northern hemisphere, and many from south of the equator, too, amplified with a growing body of temperature data from ice cores drilled in Antarctica, Greenland, the Peruvian Andes, and other locations. We are close to a knowledge of annual summer and winter temperature variations over much of the northern hemisphere going back 600 years.



This book is a narrative history of climatic shifts during the past ten centuries, and some of the ways in which people in Europe adapted to them. Part One describes the Medieval Warm Period, roughly 900 to 1200. During these three centuries, Norse voyagers from Northern Europe explored northern seas, settled Greenland, and visited North America. It was not a time of uniform warmth, for then, as always since the Great Ice Age, there were constant shifts in rainfall and temperature. Mean European temperatures were about the same as today, perhaps slightly cooler.



It is known that the Little Ice Age cooling began in Greenland and the Arctic in about 1200. As the Arctic ice pack spread southward, Norse voyages to the west were rerouted into the open Atlantic, then ended altogether. Storminess increased in the North Atlantic and North Sea. Colder, much wetter weather descended on Europe between 1315 and 1319, when thousands perished in a continent-wide famine. By 1400, the weather had become decidedly more unpredictable and stormier, with sudden shifts and lower temperatures that culminated in the cold decades of the late sixteenth century. Fish were a vital commodity in growing towns and cities, where food supplies were a constant concern. Dried cod and herring were already the staples of the European fish trade, but changes in water temperatures forced fishing fleets to work further offshore. The Basques, Dutch, and English developed the first offshore fishing boats adapted to a colder and stormier Atlantic. A gradual agricultural revolution in northern Europe stemmed from concerns over food supplies at a time of rising populations. The revolution involved intensive commercial farming and the growing of animal fodder on land not previously used for crops. The increased productivity from farmland made some countries self-sufficient in grain and livestock and offered effective protection against famine.



Global temperatures began to rise slowly after 1850, with the beginning of the Modern Warm Period. There was a vast migration from Europe by land-hungry farmers and others, to which the famine caused by the Irish potato blight contributed, to North America, Australia, New Zealand, and southern Africa. Millions of hectares of forest and woodland fell before the newcomers’ axes between 1850 and 1890, as intensive European farming methods expanded across the world. The unprecedented land clearance released vast quantities of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, triggering for the first time humanly caused global warming. Temperatures climbed more rapidly in the twentieth century as the use of fossil fuels proliferated and greenhouse gas levels continued to soar. The rise has been even steeper since the early 1980s. The Little Ice Age has given way to a new climatic regime, marked by prolonged and steady warming. At the same time, extreme weather events like Category 5 hurricanes are becoming more frequent.


剑桥雅思8Test2阅读Passage1原文翻译 sheet glass manufacture: the float process 玻璃制造

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