剑桥雅思15Test3Passage2阅读原文翻译 The Desolenator: producing clean water 净水设备
剑桥雅思15 Test3 Passage2阅读原文翻译
Travelling around Thailand in the 1990s, William Janssen was impressed with the basic rooftop solar heating systems that were on many homes, where energy from the sun was absorbed by a plate and then used to heat water for domestic use. Two decades later Janssen developed that basic idea he saw in Southeast Asia into a portable device that uses the power from the sun to purify water.
The Desolenator operates as a mobile desalination unit that can take water from different places, such as the sea, rivers, boreholes and rain, and purify it for human consumption. It is particularly valuable in regions where natural groundwater reserves have been polluted, or where seawater is the only water source available.
Janssen saw that there was a need for a sustainable way to clean water in both the developing and the developed countries when he moved to the United Arab Emirates and saw large-scale water processing. ‘I was confronted with the enormous carbon footprint that the Gulf nations have because of all of the desalination that they do,’ he says.
The Desolenator can produce 15 litres of drinking water per day, enough to sustain a family for cooking and drinking. Its main selling point is that unlike standard desalination techniques, it doesn’t require a generated power supply: just sunlight. It measures 120 cm by 90 cm, and is easy to transport, thanks to its two wheels. Water enters through a pipe, and flows as a thin film between a sheet of double glazing and the surface of a solar panel, where it is heated by the sun. The warm water flows into a small boiler (heated by a solar-powered battery) where it is converted to steam. When the steam cools, it becomes distilled water. The device has a very simple filter to trap particles, and this can easily be shaken to remove them. There are two tubes for liquid coming out: one for the waste – salt from seawater, fluoride, etc. – and another for the distilled water. The performance of the unit is shown on an LCD screen and transmitted to the company which provides servicing when necessary.
Desolenator每天可以产生15升的饮用水，足够一个家庭做饭和饮用。它的主要卖点在于，不像标准的海水淡化设备，它不需要电力供应，只要阳光就好。它长120厘米，宽90厘米，由于配备了两个轮子，十分方便运输。水从管道进入，在双层玻璃片和太阳能电池板之间以薄膜的形式流动。在这里水被阳光加热。温暖的水流入一个小锅炉（由太阳能电池负责加热）转变为蒸汽。当蒸汽冷却后就变成了蒸馏水。该装置有一个十分简单的过滤器用来过滤微粒，只需晃动就可去除它们。有两条管道供液体流出：一条排出废物 – 来自海水的盐，氟化物等 – 一条排出蒸馏水。这套设备的运行过程会显示在LCD屏幕上，并在必要的时候传输给提供服务的公司。
A recent analysis found that at least two-thirds of the world’s population lives with severe water scarcity for at least a month every year. Janssen says that by 2030 half of the world’s population will be living with water stress – where the demand exceeds the supply over a certain period of time. ‘It is really important that a sustainable solution is brought to the market that is able to help these people’, he says. Many countries ‘don’t have the money for desalination plants, which are very expensive to build. They don’t have the money to operate them, they are very maintenance intensive, and they don’t have the money to buy the diesel to run the desalination plants, so it is a really bad situation.’
一项最近的分析发现，世界上至少有三分之二的人每年至少有一个月的时间生活在极度缺水的状态中。Janssen说，到2030年时，世界上将会有一半的人口文章来自面临用水压力 – 在特定的时间里需求超过供给。 “为市场提供能够帮助到这些人的可持续解决方案真的很重要”，他说，许多国家“没有钱建造十分昂贵的海水淡化工厂，他们没有钱去运营这些维护工作十分繁重的厂房，他们也没有钱购买柴油来维持这些工厂的运转，所以情况真的很差”。
The device is aimed at a wide variety of users – from homeowners in the developing world who do not have a constant supply of water to people living off the grid in rural parts of the US. The first commercial versions of the Desolenator are expected to be in operation in India early next year, after field tests are carried out. The market for the self-sufficient devices in developing countries is twofold – those who cannot afford the money for the device outright and pay through microfinance, and middle-income homes that can lease their own equipment. ‘People in India don’t pay for a fridge outright; they pay for it over six months. They would put the Desolenator on their roof and hook it up to their municipal supply and they would get very reliable drinking water on a daily basis,’ Janssen says. In the developed world, it is aimed at niche markets where tap water is unavailable – for camping, on boats, or for the military, for instance.
该设备的目标客户范围很广 – 从发展中国家里没有持续水供应的房主，到美国农村地区远离人烟的居民。Desolenator的第一个商用版本预计将在进行实地测试后，于明年初在印度投入运营。这一自给自足的设备在发展中国家有两重市场：一重是那些没有钱直接购买设备而通过小额信贷支付的人，另一重是那些能够出租他们自己设备的中等收入家庭。“印度居民不会为冰箱付全款，他们会用六个月的时间进行分期。他们会把Desolenator放在房顶上，并把它与他们的市政供水系统将挂钩，从而每天获得非常可靠的饮用水，”Janssen说。在发达国家，它瞄准无法获得自来水的细分市场 – 例如露营地、船舶或者军事用途。
Prices will vary according to where it is bought. In the developing world, the price will depend on what deal aid organisations can negotiate. In developed countries, it is likely to come in at $1,000 (￡685) a unit, said Janssen. ‘We are a venture with a social mission. We are aware that the product we have envisioned is mainly finding application in the developing world and humanitarian sector and that this is the way we will proceed. We do realise, though, that to be a viable company there is a bottom line to keep in mind,’ he says.
The company itself is based at Imperial College London, although Janssen, its chief executive, still lives in the UAE. It has raised ￡340,000 in funding so far. Within two years, he says, the company aims to be selling 1,000 units a month, mainly in the humanitarian field. They are expected to be sold in areas such as Australia, northern Chile, Peru, Texas and California.