剑桥雅思18Test4Passage1阅读原文翻译 Green roofs 绿色屋顶

剑桥雅思18Test4Passage1阅读原文翻译 Green roofs 绿色屋顶

剑桥雅思18阅读第四套题目第一篇文章的主题为绿色屋顶。作者介绍了目前英国绿色屋顶的情况,绿色屋顶的好处,其他城市的相关实践,需要采取的配套措施,以及衍生概念等。虽然内容不算很难,但长句子很多,比较考验大家的基础能力。下面是具体每个自然段的翻译。

剑桥雅思18Test4Passage1阅读答案解析 Green roofs 绿色屋顶

剑桥雅思18 Test4 Passage1阅读原文翻译

段落A

Rooftops covered with grass, vegetable gardens and lush foliage are now a common sight in many cities around the world. More and more private companies and city authorities are investing in green roofs, drawn to their wide-ranging benefits. Among the benefits are saving on energy costs, mitigating the risk of floods, making habitats for urban wildlife, tackling air pollution and even growing food. These increasingly radical urban designs can help cities adapt to the monumental problems they face, such as access to resources and a lack of green space due to development. But the involvement of city authorities, businesses and other institutions is crucial to ensuring their success – as is research investigating different options to suit the variety of rooftop spaces found in cities. The UK is relatively new to developing green roofs, and local governments and institutions are playing a major role in spreading the practice. London is home to much of the UK’s green roof market, mainly due to forward-thinking policies such as the London Plan, which has paved the way to more than doubling the area of green roofs in the capital.

覆盖着草坪、菜园和郁郁葱葱植被的屋顶在如今世界许多城市中已经不足为奇。越来越多的私营公司和城市当局受到绿色屋顶各种好处的吸引,正在投资该项目。其好处包括降低能源成本、减小洪水风险、为城市野生动植物提供栖息地、解决空气污染问题,甚至可以种植食物等。这些日益激进的城市设计能够帮助城市应对其所面临的重大问题,比如资源获取和由于发展而缺乏绿地等。但是,城市当局、企业和其他机构的参与对绿色屋顶的成功至关重要。同时我们还需要研究调查适合城市不同屋顶的各种选项。英国在发展绿色屋顶方面还是个新手。地方政府和机构在推广这一实践方面发挥着重要作用。伦敦是英国绿色屋顶的集中地,这主要得益于其前瞻性的政策,比如《伦敦计划》。该计划使伦敦的绿色屋顶面积增加了一倍以上。

段落B

Ongoing research is showcasing how green roofs in cities can integrate with ‘living walls’: environmentally friendly walls which are partially or completely covered with greenery, including a growing medium, such as soil or water. Research also indicates that green roofs can be integrated with drainage systems on the ground, such as street trees, so that the water is managed better and the built environment is made more sustainable. This article is from website. There is also evidence to demonstrate the social value of green roofs. Doctors are increasingly prescribing time spent gardening outdoors for patients dealing with anxiety and depression. And research has found that access to even the most basic green spaces can provide a better quality of life for dementia sufferers and help people avoid obesity.

不断进行的研究展示了城市中的绿色屋顶如何与“活着的墙壁”相结合:这些环保墙壁部分或完全被绿色植物覆盖,包括诸如土壤和水这样的生长介质。研究还表明,绿色屋顶可以与地面上的排水系统相结合(比如街道树木)从而更好地管理水资源,使建筑环境更加可持续。还有证据证明绿色屋顶的社会价值。医生越来越多地为患有焦虑和抑郁症的患者开处方,让他们花时间在户外进行园艺活动。研究还发现,即使是最基础的绿色空间也能提升痴呆症患者的生活质量,并帮助人们避免肥胖问题。

段落C

North America, green roofs have become mainstream, with a wide array of expansive, accessible and food-producing roofs installed in buildings. Again, city leaders and authorities have helped push the movement forward – only recently, San Francisco, USA, created a policy requiring new buildings to have green roofs. Toronto, Canada, has policies dating from the 1990s, encouraging the development of urban farms on rooftops. These countries also benefit from having newer buildings than in many parts of the world, which makes it easier to install green roofs. Being able to keep enough water at roof height and distribute it right across the rooftop is crucial to maintaining the plants on any green roof – especially on ‘edible roofs’ where fruit and vegetables are farmed. And it’s much easier to do this in newer buildings, which can typically hold greater weight, than to retro-fit old ones. Having a stronger roof also makes it easier to grow a greater variety of plants, since the soil can be deeper.

在北美地区,绿色屋顶已经成为主流,建筑物上安装了各种广阔、易于进入和可生产食物的屋顶。此外,城市领导和当局一直在推动这一运动的发展。就在不久前,美国旧金山市制定了一项政策,要求新建筑物必须有绿色屋顶。加拿大多伦多自上世纪90年代起就出台了鼓励在屋顶上发展城市农场的政策。这些国家还因拥有比世界上许多地区更新的建筑物而受益,这使得安装绿色屋顶变得更加容易。对于维护绿色屋顶上植物而言,在屋顶上保持足够的水分并使其均匀分布至关重要,特别是在种植水果和蔬菜的“可食用屋顶”上。在更新的建筑物中,这样做要容易得多,因为它们文章来自通常可以承受更大的重量,而不像老旧建筑物那样需要改装。拥有更坚固的屋顶还使得更容易种植更多种类的植物,因为土壤可以更深。

段落D

For green roofs to become the norm for new developments, there needs to be support from public authorities and private investors. Those responsible for maintaining buildings may have to acquire new skills, such as landscaping, and in some cases, volunteers may be needed to help out. Other considerations include installing drainage paths, meeting health and safety requirements and perhaps allowing access for the public, as well as planning restrictions and disruption from regular activities in and around the buildings during installation. To convince investors and developers that installing green roofs is worthwhile, economic arguments are still the most important. The term ‘natural capital’ has been developed to explain the economic value of nature; for example, measuring the money saved by installing natural solutions to protect against flood damage, adapt to climate change or help people lead healthier and happier lives.

要使绿色屋顶成为新建筑物的常态,需要得到公共当局和私人投资者的支持。负责维护建筑物的人可能需要学习新的技能,比如园艺设计。在某些情况下,可能还需要志愿者的帮助。其他需要考虑的东西还包括安装排水路径,满足卫生和安全要求,也许还需要向公众开放,并且还要做好计划,在安装期间可能会受到建筑物内外常规活动的限制和干扰。为了说服投资者和开发商安装绿色屋顶是值得的,经济依据仍然至关重要。 “自然资本” 这个术语已被开发出来,用于解释自然的经济价值;例如,我们可以计算通过采用自然解决方案降低防洪损失、适应气候变化、或帮助人们过上更健康更幸福的生活所带来的受益。

段落E

As the expertise about green roofs grows, official standards have been developed to ensure that they are designed, constructed and maintained properly, and function well. Improvements in the science and technology underpinning green roof development have also led to new variations in the concept. For example, ‘blue roofs’ enable buildings to hold water over longer periods of time, rather than draining it away quickly – crucial in times of heavier rainfall. There are also combinations of green roofs with solar panels, and ‘brown roofs’ which are wilder in nature and maximise biodiversity. If the trend continues, it could create new jobs and a more vibrant and sustainable local food economy – alongside many other benefits. There are still barriers to overcome, but the evidence so far indicates that green roofs have the potential to transform cities and help them function sustainably long into the future. The success stories need to be studied and replicated elsewhere, to make green, blue, brown and food-producing roofs the norm in cities around the world.

随着关于绿色屋顶的专业知识不断增长,官方标准已经制定出来,以确保它们被正确设计、建造和维护,并能够正常运转。支撑绿色屋顶发展的科学和技术的改进也导致新概念的出现。例如,“蓝色屋顶”能够使建筑物在较长时间内储藏水资源,而不是迅速排水。这在降雨较多时至关重要。还有的方案将绿色屋顶与太阳能电池板相结合。而“棕色屋顶”则更加贴近自然,能够最大程度地增加生物多样性。如果这种趋势持续下去,它可能会创造新的就业机会和更加充满活力和可持续的本地食品经济,同时带来许多其他好处。虽然还有一些障碍需要克服,但迄今为止的证据表明,绿色屋顶有潜力改变城市,并在未来帮助它们实现可持续发展。成功案例需要被研究并复制到其他地方,以使绿色、蓝色、棕色和生产食物的屋顶成为世界各地城市的常态。

剑桥雅思18Test4Passage2阅读原文翻译 The growth mindset 成长心态

剑桥雅思18Test4Passage3阅读原文翻译 Alfred Wegener: science, exploration, and the theory of continental drift 阿尔弗雷德·韦格纳

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